Topic: TN: My Vote for Values, Pt. 2: Further Misadventures in QPR
Author: Manuel Camblor/NYC
Josie’s voice rose half an octave in pitch as she asked: “Why are we doing this, exactly?”. Her face told me that she would take no more nonsense. My answer had to be good.
“The newbies,” I said. “I want to save the newbies from some nasty frights”.
I’ll spare you the rest of that conversation. And all the painfully similar ones I’ve had with my beloved companion over the past few months because. She had a right to question my nightly choice of beverages to accompany our meals. We both work hard all day. It’s only fair that with idnner we can have a nice bottle of wine.
For months I had involved us in a quest that—this I must confess—often seemed quite absurd. We had devoted ourselves to tasting as many wines as I oculd find under $10 in price, all to see if there were any truly interesting wines left at that price point. Origin didn’t matter. It was crucial to find out whether one can maintain one’s wine habit on the cheap these days.
I’ve discussed in the previous installment of this saga how $10 was once my absolute ceiling when it came to buying wine. That was not so long ago... A mere 15 or 2 years.
I often hear a refrain that goes: “More high-quality wine is being produced today than at any time before in history”. I go to wine shops and think to myself that, at least on the basis of the prices being asked for most wines, this must be true. It would seem that with so much “high-quality wine” around, wine urveyors have come to believe selling a bottle under $10 “just isn’t right”. The idea at work seems to be that people wouldn’t associate something that inexpensive with “quality”. I can ascertain this because a number of clerks in Manhattan wine stores have looked at me as if I were nuts when I asked them to recommend “interesting” and “high-quality” wines under $10. When I spoke tothem about the days when a great QPR bottle went for about $6, they raised their eyebrows that extra bit and said: “Man, that was a long time ago. $20 is the new $10...” (I know kind folks have recently mentioned $15 is the new $10, but other notions seem to hold sway over the supply end of the marketplace).
Of course, the current situation of the U.S. dollar against the euro does not help matters if the under-$10 bottle one seeks is from anywhere in Europe. What was once $5 is now $8, what $9 now $ 14... And we have to excuse the price hike on account of the exchange rate. On top of this, 2003 was, no matter what many pundits say, a truly horrible vintage in most of the European regions that produce habitual QPR champions (well, it sucked also in places where they make wildly expensive wines, but htta’s a matter for another discussion...): There were few wines from my favorite regions of France, spain, Italy and Germany that I felt like drinking, let alone paying for.
As I finished my fiftieth bottle of under $10 wine, or oured it down the drain, or yelled at it, or whatever it is I did, I didn’t feel like carrying on with my experiment for much longer. The odds were against my finding any new value stars.
But guess what? I forged ahead. I tasted, and tasted... I had joy. I had pain. Josie put up with the whole thing admirably. Here are the next fifty-something bottles...
2002 Sierra Cantabria, Rioja: This had come recommended to me on some Spanish-language wine boards as a “top value” red in the “modern” style. Contrary to popular belief, I do take such suggestions seriously and actually go and try the damn wines... In this case, I’m dealing with a heavily vanilla-creamed nose. Accents of anise, then some raspberry jam. Not much on the palate, really. A burst of bubblegum, then dry wood tannins. The finish is short and the bubblegum quickly resolves itself into a tiny splash of cherry bonbons. At the very end there is a vague tartness that, for some reason that isn’t especially obvious, makes me think that this does, in fact, taste remotely like Rioja. But remotely... $8.99
2002 Union de Producteurs Plaimont, ‘Les Vignes Retrouvées,’ Côtes de Saint Mont, France : I thought it prudent to add another of the wines I’ve considered a perennial “value favorite,” consistent from year to year and with no inexplicable uppings of its price. This little white always delivers. Complex, powerfully mineral nose with a very mild oxidative cast to it. Aromas of apple, white peach and gooseberry. With air, a very light note of camphor appears. Al these elements show up in the mouth, too. The flavors are layered and bright acidity ties everything together very nicely. Nice weight and great length. A clear note of citrus rings on long after everything else fades away. Very nice. As always, amazing value. $7.99
2003 Noémie Goichot, Côtes du Rhône : A very pure nose of raspberry jam with hints of char and anise. Clean, juicy and light in the mouth, a burst of surprisingly fresh berries (we are dealing wit a 2003, don’t forget...) and fine-grain tannins. Short, sweet and quite quaffable. $8.99
2002 Palacio de Menade, Verdejo, Rueda, Spain: A clean and fresh aroma of citrus and freshly-mown lawns with the vaguest of passionfruit casts to it. Simple in the mouth and rather lacking in substance at midpalate, at first. But with air, this firms up and fills out nicely with aromas and flavors of lemon and green apple. There is also a pleasant chalkiness on the finish. It’s not particularly memorable, but it plays decently with grilld sea scallop and sweet onion kebabs. $7.99
2001 Maretima, Primitivo, Puglia, Italy: A blast of Froot Loops™ on the nose, which then leaves spiced-cherry-pie aftershocks. Jammy and forward in the mouth, with very simple flavors of candied plum and cherry. At the very end there’s a nice tightening up with some cherrylike tartness that may not be a vindication, but at least saves the wine from total anodyne alcohol-spiked-kiddie-drinkhood. $8.49
2003 La Calonica, Sangiovese, Toscana, Italy: Awful. Disjointed suggestions of thyme and baked ham appear alongside dollops of mucilage and a whiff of the compost heap. Against my better judgment, I take a sip and it’s raisiny, watery and hollow. $8.99
2002 Higuerela, Almansa, Spain: An opaque, purple-black, thoroughly uninviting color to this. Smells of black licorice, roasted black fruits, nutmeg, glue, wet dog and blood. Aromatically, a nasty movie in the making... In the mouth it’s like a wet, fat blob upon which one cannot get a grip. Zero acidity, plenty of burnt raisins and some rustic tannins on a finish that veers unpleasantly towards microwave buttered popcorn at the very last. Josie says that drinking this is not unlike licking several hundred postage stamps, pronounces it “nasty!” and pours her glassful down the kitchen sink. I follow her, bottle in hand, and we give the rest of this as a gift to the New York sewers. $9.99
2002 Famille André Iché, ‘Château d’Oupia,’ Minervois, France : Not a particularly good showing for the usually reliable Oupia... A distressing dose of shrill volatility greets my nose and refuses to go away completely, even with a couple of hours of air. There are notes of raspberry, cherry, bitter chocolate, clove, star anise, thyme and lavender underneath, but they are hopelessly marred by the acetone pong. In the mouth , flavors of blackberry, plum, cherry, dried herbs and chocolate, plus something of cured ham. Grainy tannins on a long finish. Shame about the volatiles... $8.99
1997 Domaine du Cauhapé, ‘Chant des Vignes,’ Jurançon Sec, France : The golden color makes me fear that the wine may have been mishandled at some point, but I lose all anxiety when I put glass to nose... There is a ver light oxidative nose, but it seems intentional. The wine is deeply spicy, with notes of ginger, turmeric, clove and vanilla bean, followed by an intense mineral aspect. After this, there are aromas of preserved lemon, glden apple and pineapple. A very alluring nose. In the mouth it starts out in the same way a mature white Tondonia does—there is an alondy aspect, then powerful acidity, and then it fans out with fruit and earth flavors. Rocks, spices and an unexpected ntoe of golden grapes on the finish. A very interesting white. $8.99
2002 Sumarroca, Tempranillo, Penedès, Spain: It’s strange... This smells more like a light, slightly reedy, earthy-fruity little lunchtime claret than anything Spanish. But it says it’s Tempranillo, so this must be how it works in certain zones of Catalunya. Herbaceous nose with accents of plum and cherry, plus a nice underpinning of minerality. Medium-bodied and very graceful in the mouth. Plummy fruit, plus chewy, fine-grained tannins. A long, fresh aftertaste. $8.99
2003 Les Accents du Vignoble, ‘Le Paradou,’ Côtes du Luberon, France : The name of the producer makes me think more of a cheesy decorating firm than of a winery, but that’s just me. The wine? Tutti-frutti-smelling... The aroma reminds me very much of a breakfast cereal I found particularly unattractive in my childhood, Fruity Pebbles™. A bit of fizziness on entering the mouth, much like a gone-off piece of fruit. Plum and raspberry hard candies is all one gets here. Insultingly simplistic and unstructured. Another boozed-up bit of soda pop. Most of the bottle goes down the sink. $7.99
2003 Doña Paula, Malbec, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina: A chocolate-covered cherry doused in maple syrup. That’s all that comes to mind as I sip this Argentinian red made by a Chilean company. It wears its 14% alcohol well enough, since there is only marginal heat as it goes down the gullet. Grainy tannins on a medium finish. There’s no excitement here, but it’s correct as far as juicy, purple, oak-enhanced generics go. $9.99.
2003 La Vieille Ferme, Blanc, Côtes du Luberon, France: It’s a candyish Grenache Blanc blend with a watery midpalate. But there’s some fun to it, I must say... An apple pie nose with a hint of banana and ginger, plus—what ?—a whiff of hot sand on the nose. Light and simple in the mouth, with a hit of apple and pear as it enters, then the aforementioned watery midpalate, then as much acidity and grip as this kind of concoction can muster (especially in a vintage like the brutal 2003). Medium-short finish with notes of apple peel and chalk. Decent enough. $5.99
2003 Cadonini, Montepulciano d’Abruzzo, Italy: This is an earthy little fruity thing made attractive by hints of bacon and dried flowers on the nose. Light, smooth, juicy and simple in the mouth. A nice party quaffer without any pretensions. $4.99
2004 Nobilo, Sauvignon Blanc, Marlborough, New Zealand: A grassy, tropical-citrusy, faintly garden-hosey drop of completely unremarkable New Zealand Sauvignon. It’s in the face of such industrial anonimity that one misses a little bit of that cat-spritz aroma which was once so common in Sauvignons from this part of the world... $9.99
2003 Bodegas Faustino Martínez, “Faustino VII,” Rioja: Smells like burnt-out matches in an uncared-for stableyard at first. That pong dissipates, but never completely. One always keeps the impression of the wine being somewhat dirty. Aromas of roasted plum and cherry emerge. Light, fruity and spicy in the mouth, a simple red with decent acidity. Were it not for the persistent stinkiness, this might be quite enjoyable. $9.49
2004 Bodegas Norton, Sauvignon Blanc, Mendoza, Argentina: Herbaceous, with a faint hint of cat pee and another of green olives. Simple, direct and completely unpretentious in the mouth; bone-dry and lemony. Good length, though it becomes a bit unfocused at the end. $5.99
2003 Pierre Boniface, “Aprémont,” Vin de Savoie : The fact that Robert Parker likes this wine is something that will always puzzle me. This consistent value winner is a spritzy, minerally, conspicuously small-scale and light of movement white... Not the kind of stuff that is a shoe-in for big points, right? But I have read that Mr. Parker loves. Go figure. Anywya, the ’03 Aprémont doesn’t disappoint. The wine is fresh and lemony, with accents of wet cement on the nose. A burst of citrus in the mouth followed by an aftershock of chalky minerality. Very clean and well-delineated on a crisp, medium-length finish. $8.49
2000 Bodegas Riojanas, “Puerta Vieja” Crianza, Rioja: The smell of paint thinner never really goes away on this one, barring the possibility of true enjoyment. Notes of caramel, rosemary, plum, sweaty horse... Medium-bodied in the mouth, with flavors of blackberry, plum and baked ham. But the volatility kills it.$9.99
2000 Quinta do Ventozelo, Douro, Portugal: Grapey on the nose, veering towards raisiny at some points and with accents of dried oregano. Fruity and with pert tannins in the mouth, a simple, rustic little red that’s very easy to drink, especially with a slight chill. $9.99
2003 Sucs. De Manuel Piquer, “Lelia” Garnacha, Cariñena, Spain: This light-bodied, juicy red was a very pleasant surprise. Beautiful ruby-garnet color. Very clean nose of cherry and cranberry with a spicy twist. More of same in the mouth, with refreshing acidity on a nice, long, clean and fruity finish. Another delicious quaff. $5.99
2003 Bodegas Riojanas, “Medieval,” Rioja: A simple little red that manages surprising freshness, given the absurd heat of 2003. It is from Rioja, but it could easily be mistaken for a decent Beaujolais Villages. Clean aromas and flavors of plum, red berries and cassis. Light-bodied, with nice acidity and a bit of tannic grip. A vague roasted quality to the fruitiness of the aftertaste is the only suggestion of the peculiar character of the vintage. An easygoing drink with which to wash down some grilled chorizo and crispy sweetbreads. $5.99
2002 Carlo Hauner, Pulera, Sicily, Italy: Aromas of bitter cocoa, prunes and redcurrants with a subtle floral cast (dried roses?). Juicy in the mouth, with more cocoa and a bite of tannins, plus a plumskin sort of thing on the finish. It’s pleasant enough, but overall it seems a bit bland. $9.49
2004 Cousiño-Macul, Chardonnay, Maipo Valley, Chile: Smells and tastes like green table grapes and Goya pear nectar. Simple, juicy and clean, if too anonymous, with a touch of refreshing acidity. Shortish, with a suggestion of pickled ginger just before it vanishes. $7.99
2002 Domaine de Beauchêne, Numa “Special Barrel Cuvée Selection,” Costières de Nîmes : Raspberry, cassis, wood and alcohol on the nose. A rather coarse presentation, this. Compact, charred, chunky and tannic in the mouth. Black fruit, China ink and oak on a short finish with niticeable alcoholic burn. Not a very pleasant drink. $8.99
NV “The Lost Vineyards,” White Table Wine, Portugal: Stacks of boxes at Astor Wine proclaim “The Return of the Lost Vineyards”, announcing that the price of each bottle in this series of wines has been reduced from $2.25 to... $1.99!!! Suddenly I’m transported to a fine day in the mid-1980s. I’m a college student in Miami, enthusiastic about wine and trying to drink some with every evening’s meal... $1.99 would have been the right price point for the little wines that irrigated those salad days of mine. This “Lost Vineyards” would have proven very satisfying to me back then and is pretty happy-making for the older and more jaded version of yours truly. Lemon and apple with a little bit of spritz. A simple, very refreshing little white with nice persistence. Some savory-herbaceous notes add interest at the very end. Overall, there’s a very tenuous sort of plasticky feel to the iwne, but at the price, one is quick to forgive. $1.99 [I dedicate this tasting note to my good friend Chris Coad, who once said I did not dare “plumb the depths” of cheap-winehood...]
2003 Domaine des Amouriers, Vin de Pays de Vaucluse : Aggressively pruney and alcoholic on the nose. The alcohol is too sharp, even after the wine spends an hour in the fridge. Stewed, clunky black fruit and more searing alcohol in the mouth. Mercifully short of finish. I thoroughly disliked this... $8.99
2003 Domaine de Tariquet, Sauvignon, Vin de Pays de Côtes de Gascogne : A musky-melony-grapey-herbaceous nose with hints of ginger and hot sand. Plush and fruity on entering the mouth—pink grapefruit and grape, mostly. It quickly takes a turn for the worse, becomeing flabby and hollow at midpalate. With some acidity to give it backbone, this one could have been nice enough, but as is, it’s not very satisfying. $8.49
2003 Pierre Sparr, Riesling, Alsace: Tangy-smelling, with aromas of white grapefruit and aloe vera. There’s also a faint hot-garden-hose thing that, strangely enough, doesn’t seem jarring within the whole. In the mouth, the plastic element is unnoticeable, leaving only citrus with a very nice bite, plus a certain leafiness and a hint of sandy minerality. Very, very drikable. $8.99
2003 Maculan, “Pino e Toi,” Veneto, Italy: A blend of Tocai, Pinot Bianco and Pinot Grigio, this is a soft little white with a nose that smells of beer, grass and cantaloupes. Juicy and yeasty in the mouth, with golden apple and melon. Decent length and plenty of sweet, juicy fruitiness on the aftertaste, though it’s thoroughly lacking in the acidic backbone and crispness department. Still, quite drinkable. $8.99
2003 Hugel, “Gentil,” Alsace: A bit of honey, a bit of lemon, then a distressing note of green plantain on nose and mouth. Simplistic, unstructured and unforgivably boring. $9.99
2002 M. Chapoutier, “Belleruche,” Côtes du Rhône : A pleasant aroma of dried herbs (lavender, thyme, savory), old leather, plum and dried cherry. Pretty much the same stuff in the mouth, on a light frame and with an accent on the herbs. Bright acidity and pert tannins on a medium-length finish. A very easy to drink everyday Rhône. $8.99
2003 Tammasi Viticultore, “Le Volpare,” Soave Classico, Italy: Typical 2003 melony aromas, but with some interesting accents of lemon, wild flowers and white peach. In the mouth, the interest dies quickly. Simplistic and flabby, melony and bland. $7.99
2003 Campos Reales, Tempranillo, La Mancha, Spain: Earthy nose with aromas of prune, boiled beets, rosemary and blackberry. Rather dense and clunky on entering the mouth. Low-acid, tannic stuff with sweet cherry and plum flavors on a medium-length finish. It’s rather broad, clumsy and not very refreshing, but one can drink it... $7.99
2002 Château Lafleur-Chevalier, Blanc, Bordeaux: Zesty aromas of lemon, lime, white grapefruit and grass with hints of pollen. Bright in the mouth, like biting into a nice grapefruit. Good length, with a touch of chalky minerality at the end. Very nice. $8.99
2001 Jose Maria de Fonseca, Periquita, Portugal: Always a value favorite, that Periquita... Plum, black cherry, beeswax, dust and a hint of iron on the nose. Juicy and bright in the mouth, with sweet plum and cherry flavors. Good tannic grip and refreshing acidity. A shortish aftertaste that ends on a very “up” note of red fruit. $6.99
NV Château Lafayette-Reneau, “Northern White,” Finger Lakes, New York, USA: A bit of honeydew melon, a bit of spun sugar, a bit of wet stones, a bit of green pineapple, a bit of whipped cream... Very nice aroma, clean and forward. In the mouth, this straddles the borderline of off-dry, with jut a touch of residual sugar showing. Slight fizziness on entry. Tangy grapefruit and pineapple flavors with an undercast of melon. A nice, fresh and long finish with layers of citrus and faint sweetness. From thewinery I get that it’s a blend of Chardonnay and Seyval-Chardonnay with 2% residual sugar. $8.99
2003 Viña Sila, “Las Brisas” Sauvignon Blanc, Rueda, Spain: Let me just say that this is the best Chilean Sauvignon I’ve tasted in a long time. Shame it’s from nowhere near Chile... Processed citrus with the requisite tropical tinge. Very. very ripe, but with nice acidic zing. A very correct internationalist concoction. Those with a hankering for—or even those with no objections to—such a thing will find it quite tasty. $8.99
2003 Fred Loimer, “Lois” Grüner Veltliner, Langenlois, Austria: Honeydew melon and lime on the nose, with leafy and white-peppery accents. Mild spritz in the mouth. An earthy, citrusy, fleshy Veltliner with excellent structure underneath and a lovely saline streak running through it. A very good buy. $8.99
2003 Bodega Cooperativa Nuestra Señora del Rosario, “Torremorón” Tempranillo, Ribera del Duero: This opens with a disheartening whiff of buttered popcorn that almost makes me put the bottle away without tasting the wine. But that blows away quickly and I decide to give the wine a chance. Jammy cherry and cranberry aromas and flavors with a bit of a charry edge to them. A very simple, juicy-fruity little slurper, soft and friendly. I find myself drawn to the fact that it has nice acidity on a finish that is surprisingly refreshing and long. $8.49
2004, Crisol, Torrontès, Mendoza, Argentina: “This is nasty, really,” says Josie in a deadpan voce as she brings the glass to her nose... “But it’s Torrontès, give it a chance,” I reply. She counters: “I can’t this smells like fermenting pineapple juice, like nasty stuff left in a Thermos in the Puertorrican sun.” With that I just shut up and take a whiff. Indeed, it’s pretty bad. There’s hot plastic. And the pineapple gone off. And some sort of baby food element. And Froot Loops™. None of the fresh floral sweetness of a well-made Cafayate Torrontès on this one. It’s flabby, flat and thoroughly undelicious, with the plasticky-sweet elements going one way and some disoriented acidity going another. $8.99
2003 Cantina Bolzano, “La Pergola,” Rosso Vigneti Dolomiti, Alto Adige, Italy: Prunes, maduro cigars, blackberries and crushed rocks on the nose. A big, brooding package to smell... With a lot of swirling in the glass, I begin to get notes of smoke, stewed cherries and anise. On the palate the wine surprises me by being quite fresh, with sweet plum and strawberry notes, along with a pleasant brambliness on a nice, longish finish. $9.99
2003 Los Vascos, Cabernet Sauvignon, Colchagua Valley, Chile: An herbaceous nose, lifted and clean, with notes of bell pepper and coffee grounds on a bed of plum and cherry. Medium-bodied in the mouth. Straightforward, with a burst of fresh, plummy fruit and not much else. Slightly vegetal on the finish, where an undercurrent of cherrylike acidity becomes apparent. Drinkable. And utterly forgettable. $7.99
1999 Vinhos Sogrape, Reserva, Dão, Portugal: Plumy-grapey nose with musty and herbal overtones, plus little somethings of milk chocolate, cedar and cardamom. Juicy and easygoing in the mouth, with flavors of plum, blackcurrant and cherry. A savory, almost black-oliveish note at midpalate. Grainy tannins. Decent length, with a warming spiciness creeping into the aftertaste. Not very sophisticated, but a pleasant, tasty, medium-bodied drop. $8.99
2003 Marc Ollivier, “Domaine de la Pépière, Muscadet de Sèvre et Maine Sur Lie : The vintage from hell strikes again, turning one of my perennial favorites into a warm melon-and-banana compote. Beyond said unfortunate fruit concoction, there’s the smell of PVC tubing and stones. Also a surprising seaweed-and-caraway-seed vibe. The wine has a mere fraction of the freshness, poise and élan one normally expects from a Pépière. I know, I know, can’t argue with the weather... And there is only so much even the most gifted of winemakers can do. Drab melon and lemon flavors are all midrange and no bass or trebel on the palate. A nice mineral streak feels rather out of place here. It’s drinkable, yes, but oh so far from happy-making... $8.99
2002 Renwood, Zinfandel “Sierra Series,” Sierra Foothills, California: Nail-polish remover, popcorn doused in coconut oil, red Ribena™, Welch’s™ grape juice and some other crap I’m not even going to bother with... Light-bodied and confected-tasting in the mouth. A sort of red-berry ice cream soda served at room temperature. Short. Entirely tannin-free, with a rather awkward streak of acidity trying to liven it up a bit. The phrase “the banality of evil” comes to mind and reverses itself into “the evil of banality” as I pour half of the bottle down the kitchen sink. $9.99
2003 Vega Sindoa, Viura-Chardonnay, Navarra, Spain: Medium gold color with a green tinge. Smells like Galia melons, canned pineapple, lime and banana-flavored Bubble-Yum™. Flat and slightly sweet in the mouth. Flabby. Short. A waste of time and... $6.99
Finca López Noreti, “Plaza de Mulas” Syrah, Mendoza, Argentina: Plummy and, at least nasally, vaguely recognizable as Syrah because of a wee touch of bramble and bacon fat. Shame that in the mouth it’s completely structureless. Tastes like stewed tomatoes, raisins and raspberry jam. Disjointed of finish, with no discernible acidity and gritty tannins and alcohol pulling every which way. $6.99
NV The Lost Vineyards, 20% Malbec-80% Bonarda, ArgentinaHaving enjoyed the $1.99 Portuguese white from the same collection, I decided to try out the Argentinian offerings. There’s a musty air to the nose, but the wine’s not corked—this fits more along the lines of mushrooms, or the skin of a jícama... Beyond that on the nose, it’s a cocktail of prune juice and lavender water. Light-bodied, with flavors of plum, black cherry and redcurrant, with only the slightest pruney edge. Balanced and surprisingly clean and fresh. A nice, easy quaff with pepperoni pizza from John’s around the corner. $1.99
NV The Lost Vineyards, 80% Chenin Blanc-20% Sauvignon Blanc, Argentina: Just when I was thinking things were alright after all and there could be more than one decent two-buck bottle, I tired my third example from the “Lost Vineyards” series... The aromas are of candied apples and pears, plus a foral vibe that seems disturbingly artificial and soaplike. Melony and flabby in the mouth, with a cloying note of banana compote. A flaccid, acid-free, odd little job with a bit of bitterness in the aftertaste. Ungood. $1.99
2001 Château L’Hoste Blanc, Bordeaux: The “Hoste” made have been “blanc,” but the wine is red... Nose of barnyard, lead pencil, plum and cherry with a pleasant hint of violets. A light and forward little drop of common Bordeaux in the mouth. A burst of cherry with fleshy tannins and bright acidity that tapers out nicely on a medium finish. Very correct. $9.99
To Be (Hard As It May Seem to Believe) Continued...